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Test Process Advanced (ITPA)

Steen Lerche-Jensen

Appendix 1: Terms and definitions

Terms and definitions Description

actual results

set of behaviors or conditions of a test item, or set of conditions of associated data or the test environment, observed as a result of test execution
EXAMPLE Outputs to screen, outputs to hardware, changes to data, reports and communication messages sent.

completion criteria

conditions under which the testing activities are considered complete

coverage item

see test coverage item

dynamic testing

testing that requires the execution of program code

equivalence partition

subset of the range of values of a variable, or set of variables, within a test item or at its interfaces such that all the values in the partition can reasonably be expected to be treated similarly by the test item (i.e. they may be considered "equivalent")

equivalence partition coverage

proportion of identified equivalence partitions of a test item that are covered by a test set

equivalence partitioning

test design technique in which test cases are designed to exercise equivalence partitions by using one or more representative members of each partition

expected result

observable predicted behaviour of the test item under specified conditions based on its specification or another source

exploratory testing

type of unscripted experience-based testing in which the tester spontaneously designs and executes tests based on the tester's existing relevant knowledge, prior exploration of the test item (including the results of previous tests), and heuristic "rules of thumb" regarding common software behaviours and types of failure

feature set

logical subset of the test item(s) that could be treated independently of other feature sets in the subsequent test design activities

Incident Report

documentation of the occurrence, nature, and status of an incident

performance testing

type of testing conducted to evaluate the degree to which a test item accomplishes its designated functions within given constraints of time and other resource

Organizational Test Process

test process for developing and managing organizational test specifications

Organizational Test Policy

see Test Policy

Organizational Test Specification

document that provides information about testing for an organization, i.e. information that is not project-specific
EXAMPLE The most common examples of organizational test specifications are the Organizational Test Policy and Organizational Test Strategy.

Organizational Test Strategy

document that expresses the generic requirements for the testing to be performed on all the projects run within the organization, providing detail on how the testing is to be performed

product risk

risk that a product can be defective in some specific aspect of its function, quality, or structure

project risk

risk related to the management of a project
EXAMPLE Lack of staffing, strict deadlines, changing requirements.

regression testing

testing following modifications to a test item or to its operational environment, to identify whether regression failures occur


re-execution of test cases that previously returned a "fail" result, to evaluate the effectiveness of intervening corrective actions

risk-based testing

testing in which the management, selection, prioritisation, and use of testing activities and resources is consciously based on corresponding types and levels of analysed risk

security testing

type of testing conducted to evaluate the degree to which a test item, and associated data and information, are protected so that unauthorized persons or systems cannot use, read, or modify them, and authorized persons or systems are not denied access to them

scripted testing

testing performed based on a documented test script

static testing

testing in which a test item is examined against a set of quality or other criteria without code being executed

stress testing

type of performance efficiency testing conducted to evaluate a test item's behaviour under conditions of loading above anticipated or specified capacity requirements, or of resource availability below minimum specified requirements

test basis

body of knowledge used as the basis for the design of tests and test cases

test case

set of test case preconditions, inputs (including actions, where applicable), and expected results, developed to drive the execution of a test item to meet test objectives, including correct implementation, error identification, checking quality, and other valued information

Test Case Specification

documentation of a set of one or more test cases

Test Completion Process

Test Management Process for ensuring that useful test assets are made available for later use, test environments are left in a satisfactory condition, and the results of testing are recorded and communicated to relevant stakeholders

Test Completion Report

report that provides a summary of the testing that was performed

test condition

testable aspect of a component or system, such as a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute, or structural element identified as a basis for testing

test coverage

degree, expressed as a percentage, to which specified test coverage items have been exercised by a test case or test cases

test coverage item

attribute or combination of attributes that is derived from one or more test conditions by using a test design technique that enables the measurement of the thoroughness of the test execution

test data

data created or selected to satisfy the input requirements for executing one or more test cases, which can be defined in the Test Plan, test case or test procedure

Test Data Readiness Report

document describing the status of each test data requirement

Test Design and Implementation Process

test process for deriving and specifying test cases and test procedures

Test Design Specification

document specifying the features to be tested and their corresponding test conditions

test design technique

activities, concepts, processes, and patterns used to construct a test model that is used to identify test conditions for a test item, derive corresponding test coverage items, and subsequently derive or select test cases

test environment

facilities, hardware, software, firmware, procedures, and documentation intended for or used to perform testing of software

test environment readiness report

document that describes the status of each environment requirement

Test Environment Requirements

description of the necessary properties of the test environment

Test Environment Set-up Process

dynamic test process for establishing and maintaining a required test environment

test execution

process of running a test on the test item, producing actual results

Test Execution Log

document that records details of the execution of one or more test procedures

Test Execution Process

dynamic test process for executing test procedures created in the Test Design and Implementation Process in the prepared test environment, and recording the results

Test Incident Reporting Process

dynamic test process for reporting to the relevant stakeholders issues requiring further action that were identified during the test execution process

test item

work product that is an object of testing
EXAMPLE System, software item, requirements document, design specification, user guide.

test level

specific instantiation of a test sub-process
EXAMPLE The following are common test levels that can be instantiated as test sub-processes: component testing, integration testing, system testing and acceptance testing.

test management

planning, estimating, monitoring, reporting, control and completion of test activities

Test Management Process

test process for containing the sub-processes that are required for the management of a test project

Test Monitoring and Control Process

test management process for ensuring that testing is performed in line with a Test Plan and with organizational test specifications

test phase

specific instantiation of test sub-process

Test Plan

detailed description of test objectives to be achieved and the means and schedule for achieving them, organised to coordinate testing activities for some test item or set of test items

Test Planning Process

Test Management Process used to complete test planning and develop Test Plans

Test Policy

an executive-level document that describes the purpose, goals, principles and scope of testing within an organization

test procedure

sequence of test cases in execution order, and any associated actions that may be required to set up the initial preconditions and any wrap up activities post execution

Test Procedure Specification

document specifying one or more test procedures, which are collections of test cases to be executed for a particular objective

test process

used to provide information on the quality of a software product, often comprised of a number of activities, grouped into one or more test sub-processes

test result

indication of whether or not a specific test case has passed or failed, i.e. if the actual results corresponds to the expected results or if deviations were observed

test requirement

see test condition

test script

test procedure specification for manual or automated testing

test set

collection of test cases for the purpose of testing a specific test objective

test specification

complete documentation of the test design, test cases and test procedures for a specific test item

test specification technique

see test design technique

Test Status Report

report that provides information about the status of the testing that is being performed in a specified reporting period

test strategy

part of the Test Plan that describes the approach to testing for a specific test project or test sub-process or sub-processes

test sub-process

test management and dynamic (and static) test processes used to perform a specific test level (e.g. system testing, acceptance testing) or test type (e.g. usability testing, performance testing) normally within the context of an overall test process for a test project

test technique

see test design technique

test type

group of testing activities that are focused on specific quality characteristics


set of activities conducted to facilitate discovery and/or evaluation of properties of one or more test items

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